Thursday, June 18, 2020
Sometimes we believe that person commits a crime because they hate their victims, or that crimes such, assault, vandalism, murder or terrorism are the same as a hate crime. However, it is an enormous difference between these crimes. A crime is an act deemed to be illegal, but a hate crime is a traditional offense like murder, arson, or vandalism with an added element of bias (FBI, 2016). For instance, the FBI to collect statistics has defined a hate crime as a criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offenders bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity. (FBI, 2016). Hate itself is not a crime -and the FBI is mindful of protecting freedom of speech and other civil liberties (FBI, 2016). The primary purpose of this paper will investigate hate crimes that are directed toward Race, Ethnicity/Ancestry bias and explore current hate crime policies in the United States. One of the groups that are victims of hate crimes due to bias motivation is people of different races, ethnicity or ancestry. Racial bias is a preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons who possess common physical characteristics such as a color of skin, eyes, hair, facial features, etc., genetically transmitted by descent and heredity which distinguish them as a distinct division of humankind (FBI, 2016). In 2013, the national UCR Program began collecting revised race and ethnicity data in accordance with a directive from the U.S. Governments Office of Management and Budget. The race categories were expanded from four (White, Black, Native American or Alaska Native, and Asian or Other Pacific Islander) to five (White, Black or African American, Native American or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islanders). The ethnicity categories changed from Hispanic and Non-Hispanic to Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino (FBI, 2016). In the year 2015, there were a reported 7,173 offenses that were reported by the FBI as a hate crime. Among single-bias hate crime incidents in 2015, there were 4,216 victims of race, ethnicity, and ancestry motivated hate crime of which 52.2 percent were victims of crimes motivated by their offenders anti-Black or African American bias. Also, 18.7 percent were victims of anti-White bias, 9.3 percent were victims of anti-Hispanic or Latino prejudice, and 3.8 percent were victims of the discrimination against a group of individuals in which more than one race was represented (anti-multiple races group). There was 3.3 percent victims of anti-American Indian or Alaska Native bias and 3.2 percent were victims of anti-Asian bias. Victims of anti-Arab prejudice were 1.1 percent, and only 0.1 percent (6 individuals) were victims of anti-native Hawaiian or another Pacific Islander bias. Finally, 8.1 percent were victims of anti-Other Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry bias (FBI, 2016). As we can observe in these statistics, the higher number of incidents were the biased motivation of race, ethnicity, and ancestry and the most victims involved were people of color. In the USA hate crimes against blacks remain far more numerous than hate crimes against other groups. For example, 1,745 out of 3,310 hate crime incidents motivated by racial bias in 2015 targeted Black or African Americans (FBI, 2016). Also, according to the FBI report, of the 6,885 reported hate crime offenses in 2015, the type of crimes involved: 26.9 percent were intimidation, 24.7 percent were destruction/damage/vandalism, 24.6 percent were simple assault, 12.8 percent were aggravated assault, 65.1 percent were crimes against persons, 34.0 percent were crimes against property and 0.9 percent were crimes against society (FBI, 2016). One of the factors that increased hate crime motivated by race in 2015 was Donald Trump campaign. Even though hate crimes motivated by race, ethnicity, and ancestry bias have been common in the United States (Mince-Didier, Para. 2), Donald trump elections helped to increase these crimes radically. The FBI reported in December that twice as many hate crimes were recorded in New York City after the election than in the same period in 2015, with around 867 post-election hate incidents which affected immigrants, blacks, Muslim, LGBT, women, Semitism, etc. (SPLC, 2016, p. 11). Because of Donald Trump made hate and negative speeches against immigrants especially, some group of people such as Mexicans and Muslims, supporters felt encouraged to create violent acts against others because of their race and nationalities. Even though this type of expressions should not be tolerated or yet accepted in a presidential campaign, it seems that the people are attracted and motivated for it to commit hate crimes against people only because of their skin color or not being American. According to the Southern Poverty Law Center organization reported, Just a week before the November 8th election, attackers set a church in Greenville, Mississippi, on fire. The historically black church was targeted in what authorities believe was an act of voter intimidation, its walls spray-painted with the phrase Vote Trump. Greenvilles mayor said, this kind of attack happened in the 1950s and 1960s, but it shouldnt happen in 2016 (SPLC, 2016, p. 2). Also, hate incidents involving Muslims, or those perceived to be Muslim, were about 6% of the total collected by the SPLC. Muslim Americans are frequently characterized as terrorists. In Nashville, a white man in a truck hurled racial slurs at a woman wearing a hijab while she wai ted for the bus with her son. Go back to your fucking country and take your terrorist son with you, he said as he drove away (SPLC, 2016, p. 10). Overall immigrants were the most affected, Latino residents have reported being harassed by their neighbors and adult strangers have targeted even children in public places. For instance, on a beach in Hermosa, California, a 10-year-old boy was approached by a middle-aged white man who called him a beaner and told him to get the fuck out of the country (SPLC, 2016, p. 7). These type harassments have reported since Donald Trump elections and because Trump has done little to quell the rise in hate, the connection between many of these occurrences and his presidency is clear (Jenkins, 2017). Competition is another factor that encourages hate crime, offenders see themselves as defending their turf: their neighborhood, their workplace, their religion or their country. When applying for a job, housing, college, medical treatment America use to classify and categorize people into groups such as gender, race, class levels, and these classifications created competitions putting people against one another. For instance, poverty, lack of employment and housing is one of the reasons why people kill each other every day. Thinking that one group of people is better th an another one and separating groups created hate and crime (Gerstenfeld, 2004). According to Daniel Burke, there are four categories of hate-crimes that motivate hate offenders such as retaliatory crimes, thrill-seeking crimes, defensive crimes and mission crimes. Retaliatory crimes are often seen as revenge, whether in response to personal slights, other hate crimes or terrorism. For example, After the 9/11 attacks, hate crimes against Arabs and Muslims rose by 1,600%. A similar spike occurred after the Paris attacks in 2015 (Burke, 2017). The desire for excitement motivates Thrill-seeking crimes offenders. Often there is no real reason for these crimes, experts say. Theyre committed for the thrill of it, and the victims are vulnerable just because their sexual, racial, ethnic, gender or religious background differs from that of their attackers (Burke, 2017). Defensive crimes, in these hate crimes, the attackers see themselves as defending their turf: their neighborhood, their workplace, their religion or their country (Burke, 2017). Mission crimes These are the deadliest and rarest types of hate crimes. They are committed by people who consider themselves crusaders, often for a racial or religious cause their mission: a total war against members of a rival race or religion. They are often linked to groups that share their racist views (Burke, 2017). Besides of all these factors, there have also been laws that have motivated hate crime offenders such as Anti-miscegenation laws and the segregation or disenfranchisement laws are known as Jim Crow, where Whites Only and Colored signs were constant reminders of the enforced racial order (Mince-Didier, Para. 2). Also, speeches from certain people have strengthened racism and hate. For instance, in 1973 when the supreme court struck down laws criminalizing abortion, president Richard Nixon stated that there are times when an abortion is necessary when you have a black and a white. These types of statements, and currently Donald trump president speeches, can contribute to the hate that some people develop against others only because of their race or ethnicity (Gerstenfeld, 2004). However, though still, some people contribute to negative feelings toward other individuals just because of their race, there are hate crimes policies that protect them. According to Department of Justice, The 1968 statute made it a crime to use, or threaten to use, force to willfully interfere with any person because of race, color, religion, or national origin. And also because the person is participating in a federally protected activity, such as public education, employment, jury service, travel, or the enjoyment of public accommodations, or helping another person to do so. In 1968, Congress also made it a crime to use, or threaten to use, force to interfere with housing rights because of the victims race, color, religion, sex, or national origin; in 1988, protections on the basis of familial status and were added. In 1996, Congress passed the Church Arson Prevention Act, under this Act, it is a crime to deface, damage, or destroy religious real property, or interfere with a persons religious practice, in situations affecting interstate commerce. The Act also bars defacing, damaging, or destroying religious property because of the race, color, or ethnicity of persons associated with the property (US Department of Justice, 2017, para. 2). Also, in 2009, Congress passed, and President Obama signed, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act. This act allows the federal government to assist in the investigation and prosecution of hate crimes or, in limited circumstances, to investigate and prosecute hate crime cases when a locality is unable or unwilling to pursue. Second, it ensures that those criminals who target their victims because of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability are all covered by the law (Anti-Defamation League, 2012). Laws like the ones mentioned above are fundamental because they control people with violent attitudes against a person because of their race and control hate crime in all. However, various countries not tolerate hate crime at all, including hate speech. Publicly speaking of someone because of their race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation or gender identity is illegal. Some laws criminalize spee ch because of the particular content of that statement. The prohibited substance differs widely: in some jurisdictions speech that incites hatred or is insulting about specific groups is penalized. For example, Germany committed a genocide across Europe during the Holocaust of the 1930s and 1940s because of this; its speech laws reflect active efforts to rein in words and attitudes that Germanys government once broadcast to the point of saturation (Jennifer George, p. 2). In Germany, Basic Law serves as the nations constitution, among its guarantees is the freedom freely to express and disseminate opinions in speech, writing, and pictures and to inform [one]self without hindrance but under the Basic Law. This freedom can be limited by the provisions of general laws and the right to personal dignity is particularly important under the Basic Law. Also, Basic Laws include a right to freedom of speech or expression. However, it limits discriminatory speech. Much like Germanys, Israels Basic Law on Human Dignity and Liberty open by declaring its purpose to protect human dignity (Jennifer George, p. 3). On the other hands, united states protect the first amendment more than people dignity and the right to life. The First Amendment does not protect violence, and it does not prevent the government from imposing criminal penalties for violent, discriminatory conduct directed against victims by their characteristics. Hate crime laws do not punish speech. Americans are free to think and believe whatever they want. It is only when an individual commits a crime because of those biased beliefs and intentionally targets another for violence or vandalism that a hate crime statute can be triggered (Anti-Defamation League, 2012.p 3).
Monday, May 18, 2020
When considering place, my first thought is always about whether we have a greater effect on the places we find ourselves in, or vice versa. This is like the chicken and the egg conundrum. The relationship between place and individuals is breathtakingly strong, and often, we discredit this bond. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a bond we weave throughout the decades, beginning with the warmth and comfort babies find in their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb, to the last seconds of life where we become one with our final experience. Due to prior knowledge, thoughts, and experiences in similar places, our primary focus is not on the current moment but on the many things related to it. Based on this, I theorize that being in a place allows humans to exist within multiple moments of time,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Through the study of metacognition, researchers are learning how Ã¢â¬Å"train of thoughtÃ¢â¬ process influences another.(Jones) This process is not limited to connecting a positive though to a current moment; it also concerns connecting a negative thought, a non-personal experience, general knowledge, etc. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fascinating how we are wired this way, and how this scientific aspect of us is interconnected to how we experience places. The beauty of place is that no one experiences it in exactly the same way; our unique encoding wonÃ¢â¬â¢t allow it. Still, elaborating on this theory just raises more questionsÃ¢â¬â thereÃ¢â¬â¢s the question of whether outside places take authority over inside places. Walking through a cemetery provides a quiet, self-reflecting atmosphere. Imagine passing through that atmosphere: how it looks and how it may feel to walk through it. The thought of walking over dead bodies, thinking about how the story of everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s death is specific and unique, imagining how families are getting on without their loves ones, and how many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t even stop by to visit. Along this stroll, they see others visiting graves and wilted flowers that indicate the last time someone came; they see whatÃ¢â¬â¢s etched into the tombstones and get a glimpse into the life of those who passed away. As a result of this thought process, a person can exist within multiple moments of time. They have insight on what it feels like to lose a loved one andShow MoreRelatedDescriptive Essay On My Life Exposed1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesleave a positive impact in the world before I die. A big benefactor to what defines me, is vicissitude. Change happens every day, and everywhere, yet vicissitude is a rare, drastic change, and all things considered, my hobbies, future goals, and the places IÃ¢â¬â¢ve visited have piloted me to have a very impactful and successful future in my life. I finally got to experience the beauties of the Southwest, and in visiting these cultural, fascinating cities, my eyes were opened to different blessings. In visitingRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Address At Brandenburg Gate1589 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPresident ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech regarding the Berlin wall entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Address at Brandenburg GateÃ¢â¬ delivered on June 12th, 1987, Reagan takes the position as the rhetor with the sole purpose of convincing the city of Berlin to unite and get rid of the wall separating the city in two. The wall is described by Reagan multiple times and is described to be both a physical and non-physical wall. Most of the city is separated by the physical wall and those that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t are heavily guarded and prevent travel to the otherRead MoreRhetorical Analysis : Malala Yousafzai1211 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMalala Yousafzai speech Ã¢â¬Å"Age is an issue of mind over matter. If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matterÃ¢â¬ Twain Mark. Malala Yousafzai, a teenager and the youngest Nobel Prize winner is a testimony to what Mark Twain (the author of several American novels) said in his quote. Yousafzai started the fight for her right to education and fundamental rights after her school was attacked in 2008. The Pakistani education activist Malala Yousafzai used her Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech to launch an attackRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Martin Luther Kings I Have A Dream Speech724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesRhetorical Analysis M.L.K Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dreamÃ¢â¬ Speech On August 28th 1963, Civil Rights activist, Martin Luther King Jr. made his infamous Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech. In the speech, King confronts the mistreatment of the African American community and the lack of free will they contain in society. Throughout the mid-1900s, the Civil Rights Movement took place, influenced by centuries of cruelty towards the African Americans.. The most influential speech in the modern era was said in front of thousands ofRead MoreA Brief History of Cuba1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespresidency. Eventually Cuban natives were unsatisfied with the way Batista ran the country; exiled in 1959 Batista fled to Portugal. Eventually Fidel Castro took over and converted the country to communism, which led Cuba into the best and the worst of times. After Batista was exiled to Portugal, Fidel Castro took over. The United States retained the right to intervene in their affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1961, a U.S.-backed group of Cuban exiles invaded Cuba. PlannedRead MoreShould Americans Give Up Some Rights For The Sake Of National Security?1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnow have a green light for the authorities that was put in place prior to flying to America. Some of them will face an interview upon arrival if they have raised some suspicion by certain actions creating a red flag as a nationalist. These measures target enemies from the countries who have poor relationships with the United States and other countries. These high tensions in relationships will not be dissolved in a day. It certainly takes time to thaw and evolve into solid relationships that might seemsRead MoreReligious Revitalization Movement : The First Great Awakening1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesexplain the changes of American Religion during this time. During my reading I chose Using this secondary source, because I felt Going back to the main man that impacted this movement would be beneficial as it gives a strong background into George Whitefield, a preacher from England that swept up the people in colonies from Georgia to New Hampshire in a two-year tour during 1739. It has been said by many that George Whitefield was able to turn the place of worship into a religious theater, with his energeticRead MoreAustralian Domestic Market: Australian Aviation Industry Essay1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFor approximately the past 20 years, since the deregulation of the Australian Aviation industry, the Australian Domestic Market has been profitable. The past half year has brought to light the first negative effects of fierce competition between Australias airlines the Qantas group and Virgin Australia Holdings Pty Ltd (VAH) (which will be further referred to in this document as Virgin Australia) in the form of loss which can be seen in the below figure. In recent years, the Australian DomesticRead MoreHighlighting the Issue of Neo-Colonialism through Media and Literature1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Effects of Neo-Colonialism as presented in Motorcycle Diaries and A Small Place Neo-Colonialism is a very powerful and controversial issue in the world today. Countries such as the United States, Great Brittan and France still greatly profit over the countries they left as independent years ago. This paradox is created by the mother country exerting economic and political influence on the former colonies; allowing them to still profit from these third world countries without actually occupyingRead MoreEssay on Time Travel666 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesTime Travel First of all, to give you a better concept of time I will use a personal theory of mine. When you look up at the sky at night, at the stars, what are you seeing? Do you think that collage of stars actually exists? Most of them do not. When you look at the sky at night you are seeing the past because it takes an obscene amount of time for the light from those stars to reach earth, and in that time those stars may have disappeared. It works both ways. When an inhabitant, if there
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Running head: COMMUNICATION THEORY PAPER 2 Communication Theory Paper Name University of Phoenix Communication Theory Paper 2 Communication is an important part and concern in many organizations. With many organizations having such a diverse workforce communicating has an impact on how well employees, patient and family members interact together. Many communication issues arise due to the fact that there are many employees from different cultures and different genders. These issues have an impact on how effectively tasks are done within the organization causing concerns with family members, patients and even coworkers. The different individuals that are from different cultures and genders have different ways on whichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Females are already uncomfortable about having a male take care of them that by them being quite seems to make them more uncomfortable. Open communication between male employees, patients and family members can cause some concerns with the family member on how the quality of care is with their loved one due to them understanding and rel ating to the patient. This issue leads into another issue when it comes to the cultural difference among all involved. When individuals from different cultures work in a health care facility their communication skills have an impact on how much all individuals understand each other. Individuals from different cultures sometimes speak a different language, speak broken English or have a strong accent. With such a diverse workforce in healthcare the impact their communication skills have on coworkers and managers is not as bad as on family members, patients or caregivers. The facility has some coworkers and managers that are from different cultures so they tend to relate to their communication skills. However, for the coworkers and managers that are not from their culture they tend to stay away from or avoid communication with these employees due to the fact they can not understand their broken English, tone or body language. The different cultures have different ways of communicating so the individuals from these cultures are oftenShow MoreRelatedCommunication Theories Paper1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCommunication theories paper Amanda Haring Com 310 Ã¢â¬Æ' Communication is defined as a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behavior. Communication helps us understand one another. (Communication, 2011). Communication is broken down into theories. Three examples of these theories would be the social penetration theory, cognitive dissonance theory and the uncertainty reduction theory. The social penetration theoryRead MoreCommunication Theories Paper1913 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Communication Theories Paper Communication theories are important to learn and understand. Learning these theories helps us apply the theory to our own life. It helps our critical thinking skills as well as benefits one to understand the value of research that has been accomplished in this field. Understanding communication theories can help us make sense of our daily life experiences. There are three Communication theories that I have studied that have touchedRead MoreCommunication Theory Paper : Framing1619 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCommunication Theory Paper: Framing Christopher R. OÃ¢â¬â¢Hanlon Penn State University Abstract: Framing is extremely important in the media and in public relations because it has such an impact on many issues. This communication theory basically states that Ã¢â¬Å"gatekeepersÃ¢â¬ of media and journalists can control the frame in which news is reported and distributed. For framing to be properly instituted, the message has to be easily understood by the consumer. Public relations specialist frame almost everythingRead MoreApplication Paper : Organizational Communication Theory1757 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages December 2, 2015 Alethea Hong Chan COM 314 Organizational Theory Dr. Horowitz Alethea Hong Chan COM 314 Organizational Communication Theory Dr. Horowitz December 2, 2015 Application paper Identified by consumers the most recognizable brand in the real estate field, Century 21 West Coast Brokers is a real estate agency aiming to provide brand marks, generate people-oriented organization, as well as communicative and innovative technologies. I work as an administrativeRead MoreCom 321 Communication Theory Paper1903 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Final Portfolio Kristy wenzl COM 321: Communication Theory Dan Tinianow July 16, 2017 Introduction: Do you address a tyke in a similar way that you address your supervisor? The word that you utilize and how you express your message varies from every individual you may experience. The reality of the matter is that speaking with a grown-up, a kid, a colleague, your President, or even a friend or family member, the dialect that you utilize contrasts withRead MoreThe Big Bang Theory - Communications Paper2275 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Big Bang For decades the Big Bang theory has been the leading theory on the beginning of our universe. Alternate theories come and go, but mainly go. As new data and research are continually eliminating alternatives to the standard model of cosmology, the Big Bang just keeps getting stronger. Before discussing the alternate theories to the Big Bang theory, the basics of the early universe should first be understood. The main points opposing the theory are based around a few aspects that willRead MoreSmall Group Communication : An Effective Communication958 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2015 COMM 2110 Small Group Analysis Paper 1. Small Group Communication The small group communication is an interpersonal communication within groups between thirty to twenty individuals. It is very important to have a quality communication such as information-sharing behavior and helping attitude among the members of group. The positive attitude and productive relationship between the group members help in increasing the performance of group. For quality communication, all the group members are requiredRead MoreInterpersonal Communication : The Heart And Soul Of Communication1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInterpersonal communication is the heart and soul of communication. Interpersonal communication affects how individuals communicate with their parents, significant others, and immediate others, before expanding to other areas of life. Through communication, scholars have been able to predict an array of different reactions through calculated uses of surveys and questionnaires. The Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) model defines violation expectedness Ã¢â ¬Å"as the extent to which behavior varies fromRead MoreExpectancy Violation Theory (Paper Rough Draft)1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesExpectancy Violation Theory (Paper Rough Draft) Ã¢â¬Æ' Expectancy Violation Theory, or more commonly referred to as EVT, is the study of attempting to explain oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reactions to unexpected behavior of their peers, and the various meanings that people attribute to the violation, or infringement, of their personal space. Judee Burgoon defines personal space as the invisible, variable volume of space surrounding an individual that defines that individualÃ¢â¬â¢s preferred distance from others. I will explainRead MoreThe Theory Of Interpersonal Communications1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction One of the most dominant theories in the field of interpersonal communications is Uncertainty Reduction Theory. The Uncertainty Reduction Theory was created by Berger and Calabrese in 1975. It is a communication theory from the post-positivist tradition, it is the only communication theory that specifically considers the initial interaction between people prior to the actual communication. Have you ever been invited to participate in an activity and you did not know anyone there expect
Tuesday, April 21, 2020
What wonderful powers lead people to their fame and success? What or who can motivate and stimulate creativity and talent? Many years ago the antique authors found the answer to this question with developing the myth about the Muses who inspired artists and their teacher Apollo. Nevertheless, the secret of the enormous glory of the famous people was not solved because behind each talent is a unique destiny.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on MuseÃ¢â¬â¢s of Marylyn Monroe specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When today people speak about the most vivid cultural phenomena and extraordinary figures of the 20th century they always mention the name of Marilyn Monroe. This actress made a real revolution in the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s minds of the 1950s years and became the forever legend of cinematography in spite of the fact her talents were not appreciated by critics. It is possible to say that her secret was in her extr eme charm and magic attraction because this woman always smiled and looked happy. However, her smile was the mask of her great loneliness, trying to avoid which Marilyn Monroe directed all her efforts to her career success. Thus, the loneliness and desire of recognition became MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s main forces toward the fame, became her Muses which followed her since birth to death. Marilyn Monroe not only devoted her short and vivid life to art of cinematography and ApolloÃ¢â¬â¢s goddesses but also she herself became the goddess of the whole cultural era. While observing vibrant pictures in many magazines and colorful posters, it is difficult to imagine all that pain, loneliness, and misunderstanding which were common for MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday life since her early years. Norma Jeane Mortenson, later known as Marilyn Monroe, was born on June 1, 1926 in Los Angeles. NormaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Gladys, was an ordinary woman, and the father was unknown to the girl. The family suffered from poverty, but the real tragedy of little Norma Jeane was the mental illness of her mother. When Gladys was taken to hospital Norma Jeane began to change the orphanages and foster homes where she could not find the necessary love and support (Ã¢â¬Å"The Marilyn Monroe BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). Her character formed under the influence of difficult life conditions and the enormous feeling of loneliness. Norma Jeane was too young when she understood that she can trust only herself, Ã¢â¬Å"I learned also that the best way to keep out of trouble was by never complaining or asking for anythingÃ¢â¬ (Spoto 123). Nevertheless, it seemed that Norma Jeane can get a chance to have a family when her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s friend Grace took her from the orphanage, but at the age of sixteen the girl had to look for new ways to cope with her difficult living conditions. Grace decided that the best variant for Norma Jeane could be marrying a good man. Jim Dougherty was considered as the best party for the girl.A dvertising Looking for research paper on biography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Norma Jean got everything she wanted because now she had her own home, family, and the social status (Morgan). However, the feeling of loneliness did not disappear. Norma JeaneÃ¢â¬â¢s husband spent a lot of time abroad, and the young girl suffered from boredom. In 1944 Norma Jeane worked at factory, and she with other women from the factory was photographed for the promotion of the working womanÃ¢â¬â¢s image in the Army (Morgan). The girlÃ¢â¬â¢s interesting appearance attracted David Conover, one of the photographers. It was the start of Norma JeaneÃ¢â¬â¢s career as a model and the end of her marriage with Dougherty. Describing her marriage, she said that it Ã¢â¬Å"didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make me sad, but it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make me happy either. My husband and I hardly spoke to each otherÃ¢â¬ (Spoto 201). Moreover, the career of a model could gi ve her proving her beauty and the feeling of personal significance because the lack of it influenced the development of her many psychological problems and inner complexes (Leaming). Norma Jeane became a famous model who worked for such magazines as Life and Sir. This fact could become the highest top of her career, but in 1946 she signed the contract with Twentieth Century-Fox Studios. Norma JeaneÃ¢â¬â¢s first role in Scudda-Hoo! Scudda-Hay! was too small, but she was happy because this new life seemed to be unfamiliar and very interesting for her, full of surprises (Morgan). Moreover, it was the best way to gain the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s recognition. To be ready for a successful career of an actress, Norma Jeane chooses the pseudonym Ã¢â¬ËMarilyn MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢. Marilyn was sure that she could have the wonderful future because even when she worked as a model she tried to improve her appearance and prepared for the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. Thus, she was waiting for the recognition and praise and persistently tried to achieve it. It was very important for her to gain the status of a movie star (Leaming). In spite of the fact the contract with the studio was not extended, Marilyn continued to take the lessons in order to improve her actressÃ¢â¬â¢s skills. She stated: My illusions didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have anything to do with being a fine actress. I knew how third rate I was. I could actually feel my lack of talent, as if it were cheap clothes I was wearing inside. But, my God, how I wanted to learn, to change, to improve! (Spoto 209).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on MuseÃ¢â¬â¢s of Marylyn Monroe specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts and charm were noticed, and she got the role in Ladies of the Chorus (1948) in which she sang her first song. However, directors of the studios and the public did not consider her as a serious actress. Marilyn began to receive her first significant roles only in 1950. The movies were known as The Asphalt Jungle (1950) and Clash By Night (1952). MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s acting attracted the criticsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention, and in 1952 she also received the leading part in DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Bother to Knock. However, the film was not successful, and the leaders of the studios began to blame Monroe for her bad acting and the failure of the movie (Morgan). Marilyn thought that it was too injustice, and she was alone with her feelings and sufferings again. She noted that Ã¢â¬Å"creativity has got to start with humanity and when youÃ¢â¬â¢re a human being, you feel, you sufferÃ¢â¬ (Spoto 124). Nevertheless, her inner world was only her territory, and nobody could observe her real feelings. It was typical for her to combine the great optimism with disastrous depressions (Leaming). Marilyn found the way to avoid depressions caused by the enormous feeling of loneliness in love. It was necessary for her to feel the love of the public and of those men who were with her. That is why when she met Joe DiMaggio in 1952 she thought that this man could give her that love the lack of which Monroe felt since her early childhood living without her father. She said about DiMaggio, Ã¢â¬Å"he treated me like something special. Joe is a very decent man, and he makes other people feel decent, too!Ã¢â¬ (Spoto 126). Nevertheless, DiMaggio was not ready to share his wife with a lot of fans and dreamt about a loving housewife, but not a popular actress (Morgan). Marilyn also felt that her husband did not share her success in such movies as Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953), How to Marry a Millionaire (1953), and Seven Year Itch (1954) (Morgan). When Marilyn began to achieve her goals and her dreams became true she did not feel the support of close people again. To overcome the attacks of depression, Marilyn began to study at Michael ChekhovÃ¢â¬â¢s classes. Ã¢â¬Å"As MichaelÃ¢â¬â¢s pupil, I learned more about acting. I learned psycho logy, history, and the good manners of art Ã¢â¬â tasteÃ¢â¬ (Barris 78). It was that place where she felt happy and significant, where she felt being a real actress. Her attempts to improve her acting, develop her inner world, and receive some necessary knowledge were motivated by her extreme desire to find herself as a person, to understand her real nature: IÃ¢â¬â¢m trying to find myself as a person, sometimes thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not easy to do. Millions of people live their entire lives without finding themselves. But it is something I must do. The best way for me to find myself as a person is to prove to myself that I am an actress (Barris 137). Trying to find herself, Marilyn lost her husband, the marriage was broken as a result of DiMaggio and MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s misunderstandings. When she had to choose between her career and marriage she chose the career, because she felt that love expressed by her public, and she did not feel the love of her husband who only wanted to change he r (Morgan).Advertising Looking for research paper on biography? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More During this period Monroe think about the lack of serious roles in her career, she dreams to get a really significant role in an interesting movie. However, she has a definite reputation, and nobody discusses her acting seriously (Leaming). That is why Marilyn joined the Actors Studio in 1955 and began to take the lessons of Lee Strasberg, the famous drama coach. He was one of those few people who could see her talent and considered her as a gifted actress (Morgan). He said that she had Ã¢â¬Å"a luminous quality Ã¢â¬â a combination of wistfulness, radiance, yearning, that set her apart and yet made everyone wish to be part of it, to share in the childlike naÃ ¯vetÃ © which was at once so shy and yet so vibrantÃ¢â¬ (Barris 154). In spite of Michael Chekhov and Lee StrasbergÃ¢â¬â¢s praises and acknowledgements of MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s talents, there always were critics who accentuated only the actressÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses. According to David Thomson, the American critic, Marilyn co uld not even say two lines at once, and he did not believe that Lee Strasberg really appraised her talents (Leaming). When Marilyn Monroe observed such commentaries she thought that the only way for her was to smile more openly, conceal her real feelings, and do as much as possible to develop her abilities. She was very dependent on the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of her acting (Morgan). High assessments stimulated her activity and gave her the optimistic state of mood when negative reactions caused her depressions and made her feeling lonely. Monroe could be touchy and sensitive, but she was never indifferent to the other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts about her acting and personality. Marilyn also said that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s better for the whole world to know you, even as a sex star, than never to be known at allÃ¢â¬ , but at the same time she stated, Ã¢â¬Å"I want to be an artist, not an erotic freak. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be sold to the public as a celluloid aphrodisicalÃ¢â¬ (Spoto 128). The actressÃ¢â¬â¢s way to the HollywoodÃ¢â¬â¢s tops always depend not only on her drama talents but also on her appearance. MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance was so remarkable that it determined the special fashion style for the long period of time. Every woman dreamt to look like Marilyn, and every man dreamt about Marilyn. MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance was a result of her everyday hard work. First, Marilyn developed her image because of the desire to be loved by the public and attract its attention. Then her appearance became her main actorÃ¢â¬â¢s tool, and it was almost impossible to change the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of Marilyn as a beautiful doll (Ã¢â¬Å"The Marilyn Monroe BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). Nevertheless, in spite of different considerations about MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s talents as an actress, there were very few people who did not admire her as a wonderful woman. Marilyn received the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s admiration which was her inner desire from the early years, but now she was not a young dreamful girl. She was a woman who wanted to be considered as a serious actress and, first of all, as a personality. Marilyn ironically noted, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to make money. I just want to be wonderfulÃ¢â¬ (Barris 130). When Monroe met Arthur Miller she was ready to create a real family with analyzing her previous unhappy experiences. Now Marilyn could even choose her family instead of her career successes. Marilyn thought she was happy in her marriage with Miller (Morgan). It seemed that her Muse of loneliness left her, and all her efforts were directed toward creating a lovely nest at home. Moreover, Monroe was pregnant and felt that now she could realize all her love. However, the atmosphere of happiness in MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s family was not long. MarilynÃ¢â¬â¢s pregnancy resulted in the miscarriage, and it was too difficult for her to overcome the following depression. That is why Monroe experienced the drug therapy and used a lot of tranquilizers as the par t of her psychotherapy (Ã¢â¬Å"The Marilyn Monroe BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). Her marriage with Arthur Miller was also broken because they were very different people. Marilyn did not receive the necessary support from her husband, and she had to cope with all her problems by herself. The Muse returned with MarilynÃ¢â¬â¢s failures in the private life and stimulated her to act more and more vividly. Her talents developed greatly from Some Like It Hot (1958) to The Misfits (1961) (Morgan). However, the successes in her career could not give Marilyn satisfaction any more. Monroe understood that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to be unhappy alone than unhappy with someoneÃ¢â¬ , but once her loneliness became so extreme that only drugs could help her cope with it (Ã¢â¬Å"The Marilyn Monroe BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). It was typical for Marilyn to feel guilty for almost everything including her imperfect behavior and acting. The only remedy for MarilynÃ¢â¬â¢s depression could be the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s praise. Ã¢â¬Å"I feel stronger if the people around me on the set love me, care for me, and hold good thoughts for me. It creates an aura of love, and I believe I can give a better performanceÃ¢â¬ (Barris 29). Even her ex-husband Arthur Miller stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"to have survived, she would have had to be either more cynical or even further from reality than she wasÃ¢â¬ (Spoto 139). Some people said that Hollywood was her single love, and it Ã¢â¬Å"broke her heartÃ¢â¬ (Thomas). The real peculiarities of Marilyn MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s death in 1962 are still unknown. There are many versions of the tragedy including the possibilities of murdering and committing suicide (Morgan). MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s absence of abilities to survive in the dangerous and cruel world of Hollywood led to her tragic demise. She always tried to become more beautiful, more talented, more perfect, but those people who were close to her rarely noticed her attempts and considered her aims not seriously. It seemed that Mari lyn MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s talents flourished against the critique and mockeries, and her Muse developed on the base of her difficult inner world and private deep feelings. During all her life Monroe tried to get rid of the thought that she is worse than other people because there are so many great talented persons around her (Ã¢â¬Å"The Marilyn Monroe BiographyÃ¢â¬ ). Different famous people find their inspiration and their Muses in various things. The secret of Marilyn MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s fame was in her inner tragedy and enormous loneliness. Marilyn did not feel the support of her mother and father in the childhood. She also did not feel the support of her husbands when she became the famous actress, and the public which now praises her comedian gift was not always so merciful to MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s works. However, Marilyn always tried to find the powers and go with her head up, but one day in 1962 her lonely way ended. Works Cited Barris, George. Marilyn: Her Life in Her Own Words. USA: Cita del, 2001. Print. Leaming, Barbara. Marilyn Monroe. USA: Three Rivers Press, 2000. Print. Morgan, Michelle. Marilyn Monroe: Private and Undisclosed. USA: Carroll Graf, 2007. Print. Spoto, Donald. Marilyn Monroe: The Biography. USA: Cooper Square Press, 2001. Print. The Marilyn Monroe Biography. n.d. Web. Thomas, Michelle. Hello Again, Norma Jean. 18 Jul. 2006. Web. https://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/fl-xpm-2006-07-18-0607170102-story.html This research paper on MuseÃ¢â¬â¢s of Marylyn Monroe was written and submitted by user Jaxon E. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Monday, March 16, 2020
Economic Development of Hawaii essays Hawaii, with an area of 28,313 sq. km (10,932 sq. mi.), is the 43rd largest state in the U.S.; 6.9% of the land is owned by the federal government. It consists mainly of the Hawaiian Islands, eight main islands and 124 islets, reefs, and shoals. The major islands in order of size are Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Nihau, and Kahoolawe. Population growth has increased by 80,000 persons over the past five years. Demographics show a large number of Hispanic origin: Asian Hispanics are the most populated with white Hispanic and Asian non-Hispanic following. Hawaii's economy has been long dominated by plantation agriculture and military spending. As agriculture has declined in importance, the economy has diversified to encompass a large tourist business and a growing manufacturing Hawaii's economy has changed drastically since statehood. In 1958, defense, sugar, and pineapple were the primary economic activities, accounting for 40% of Gross State Product (GSP). In contrast, visitor-related expenditures stood at just over 4% of Hawaii's GSP prior to statehood. Today the positions are reversed; sugar and pineapple constitute about 1% of GSP, defense accounts for just under 11%, while visitor-related spending comes close to 24% of The movement toward a service- and trade-based economy becomes even more apparent when considering the distribution of Hawaii's jobs across sectors. The share of the economy's jobs accounted for by manufacturing and agriculture have declined steadily since 1959 and each currently makes up less than 4% of total jobs in the economy. At the same time, the shares of jobs in wholesale and retail trade and in services have risen, standing at about 23% and 28%, respectively. Since 1991, Hawaii's economy has suffered from rising rates of unemployment. This stands in marked contrast to...
Friday, February 28, 2020
Principles of Marketing - Essay Example It is irrefutable that this principle also changes the role and function of marketing managers in the business organization. Marketing management is defined as the "analysis, planning, implementation, and control of programs designed to create, build, and maintain beneficial exchanges with target buyers for the purpose of achieving organizational objectives (Kotler & Armstrong 2001, p.14)." Truly, the business arena has evolved from placing emphasis on production, product improvements, and selling approaches and started to focus on customers. Marketing management functions now covers how a company can create and extend more valuable goods and services to each customer. This paper will look at the evolution of different philosophies which relates to marketing. In order to fully offer insight regarding the difference of marketing concepts to other competing thoughts, the five main concepts namely, production concept, product concept, selling concept, marketing concept, customer concept, and societal marketing concept will be briefly defined and discussed. Lastly, this paper will also expound why organizations should focus on applying the marketing concept on their operations. The marketing concept holds that "achieving organiza... The marketing concept rests on four pillars namely, target market, customer needs, integrated marketing and profitability. Companies capitalizing on marketing concept first define a specific target market as an aim. This helps them to tailor a specific marketing which appeals to the target market. In order to become effective, marketers should be able to know their customers' needs. Though this task can be daunting as customer needs are often unexpressed and is hard to define, the marketing concept strongly advises companies to know their customers in order to come up with products that deliver superior value. Integrated marketing means that all the departments of the firm work together to serve the interest of the customer. This transfers the responsibility of the marketing department to all the functional areas. Marketing concept holds that marketing is a responsibility and must be embraced by all employees because everything they do has a corresponding impact to the customer. (Kot ler 2003). Marketing, aside from satisfying customers, should also help business organizations reach their goal of profitability. As to be discussed in the below, the main difference of the marketing concept to other philosophies is its employment of an outside-in perspective. The marketing concept "starts with a well defined market, focuses on customer needs, coordinates all activities that will affect customers, and produces profits by satisfying customer needs" (Kotler 2003, p. 20). The Production Concept The production concept is recognized as one of the oldest philosophies employed in business operations. This concept holds that "consumers will prefer products that are